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Introduction to Taiwan’s marine protected areas

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Taiwan’s specifications pertaining to marine protected areas are currently distributed among different competent authority regulations. Each responsible agency plans and sets up different types of marine areas according to its governing laws. Each agency and area also has different protection targets, management objectives, and conservation methods. For example, wildlife conservation areas are for conserving species and diversity; national parks cover conservation, research, and education/leisure; fishery resource conservation areas are for conserving aquatic resources; and nature conservation areas are for preserving the original status of special geographical resources of natural areas. National scenic areas, on the other hand, are for developing tourism and the sustainable management of natural and cultural tourism resources.  

In 2010, the competent authority for marine protected areas, the Fisheries Agency under the Council of Agriculture, defined marine protected areas based on IUCN as “areas extending from the average high tide line out towards the sea for a certain distance and possessing special natural landscape, important cultural heritage, or sustainable ecological resources that must be protected or managed according to the law or other effective methods.” The Fisheries Agency also recognized that Taiwan’s marine protected areas should be planned according to the “Fisheries Act,” “National Park Law,” “Wildlife Conservation Act,” “Cultural Heritage Preservation Act,” and the “Act for the Development of Tourism.” As of September 2020, there are 44 marine protected areas in Taiwan with an area of approximately 5303.97 km2 (after deducting an overlapping area of 3.88 km2), accounting for 8.23% of Taiwan’s offshore borders and domestic water area + Kinmen, Matsu, and Taiping Island’s restricted marine area of 64,473 km2 (data provided by the Ministry of the Interior). If converted based on Taipei City’s administrative area of 272 km2, Taiwan has a marine protected area of approximately 19.5 Taipei City in size. Of this area, national parks account for the biggest proportion at 82.86%, followed by marine wildlife conservation areas (including important habitat environments) at 14.44%, fishery resource conservation areas at 1.84%, national scenic areas at 0.82%, and nature conservation areas at 0.0002%. The areas are listed below:

1. One important wildlife habitat environment and five wildlife conservation areas established according to the “Wildlife Conservation Act” (originally under the jurisdiction of the Forestry Bureau, but now under the jurisdiction of the Ocean Conservation Administration)
2.  Four national parks that include marine areas established according to the “National Park Law” (under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior)
3. Twenty-nine fishery resource conservation areas established according to the “Fisheries Act” (under the jurisdiction of the Fisheries Agency)
4. Three nature conservation areas established according to the “Cultural Heritage Preservation Act” (under the jurisdiction of the Forestry Bureau)
5. Two marine resource conservation areas established in national scenic areas according to the “Act for the Development of Tourism” and “Urban Planning Law” (under the jurisdiction of the Tourism Bureau).

The “Aichi Targets” adopted by 2010 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 10th Conference of the Parties (COP10) recommended that 10% of the coastal and marine areas be designated as protected areas before 2020 and put under effective management. The 2014 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development passed a series of sustainable development goals (SDGs), among which Goal 14 is to conserve and sustainably use ocean and marine resources to ensure sustainable development, and Goal 14.5 of the detailed items pledged to protect at least 10% of the coastal and marine areas before 2020, while obtaining the best scientific information, according to national and international laws.
In 2020, the proportion of global marine protected area is 7.44%, which is approximately 26,947,375 km2 in size. This includes 6.87% of the national jurisdiction area within the region (national waters) and 0.72% of areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ). National waters that accounts for 39% of global marine waters contain conservation areas of 24,329,222 km2 in size, which contribute to 17.23% of this water region, while ABNJ that accounts for 61% of global marine waters contain only 1.18% of designated protected areas (https://protectedplanet.net/marine). The OCA will continue to work towards the Aichi Targets.
The Fengbin Fishery Resource Conservation Area established according to the “Fisheries Act” 
The Matsu Island Tern Conservation Area established according to the “Wildlife Conservation Act”

List of Taiwan’s marine protected areas
Number   Name of protected area   County/city of location       Legal basis
1 Mianhua and Huaping Islets Wildlife Refuge
2 Taoyuan Guanxin Algal Reefs Ecosystem Wildlife Refuge
3 Matsu Islands Tern Refuge
4 Penghu County Mao Islet Seabird Refuge
5 Penghu County Wangan Island Green Turtle Nesting Refuge
6 Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin Major Wildlife Habitat
7 Kenting National Park
8 Dongsha Atoll National Park
9 Taijiang National Park
10 South Penghu Marine National Park
11 Suao Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
12 Toucheng Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
13 Keelung City Aquatic Plants and Animals Conservation Area
14 Wanghaixiang Chaojing Bay Resource Conservation Area
15 Gongliao Aquatic Plants and Animals Reproduction Conservation Area
16 Wanli Aquatic Plants and Animals Reproduction Conservation Area
17 Ruifang Conservation Area
18 Yehliu Aquatic Plants and Animals Reproduction Conservation Area
19 Wanwa Venus Clam Breeding Conservation Area
20 Shengang Mud Shrimp Breeding Conservation Area
21 Wanggong Mud Shrimp Breeding Conservation Area
22 Shengang (2) Mud Shrimp Breeding Conservation Area
23 Liuqiu Aquatic Plants and Animals Reproduction Conservation Area
24 Checheng Aquatic Plants and Animals Reproduction Conservation Area
25 Resources Nursing Area of National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium
26 Fushan Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
27 Xiaoma Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
28 Xiaogang Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
29 Yiwan Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
30 Ludao Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
31 Yanliao Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
32 Shuilian Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
33 Gaoshan Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
34 Xiaohu Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
35 Fengbin Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
36 Shitiping Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
37 Xiaomen Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
38 Qimei Aquatic Organisms Propagation and Conservation Zone
39 Kinmen Kuningtou Northwest Intertidal Terrain Horseshoe Crab Conservation Area
40 Penghu Columnar Basalt Nature Reserve
41 Penghu South Sea Columnar Basalt Nature Reserve
42 Xuhai-Guanyinbi Nature Reserve
43 Ludao Haishenping to Fanchuanbi Marine Resources Conservation Area
44 Northeast and Yilan Coast National Scenic Area (Marine Resources Protected Area)
45 Fanzishi Natural Monument
46 Dongao Aquatic Plants and Animals Reproduction Conservation Area


Marine protected Areas Integration Platform

Unit:Ocean Conservation Administration
  • Visitor: 3216
  • Update: 2022-12-15
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